Computer kya hai
Information Technology

Computer kya hai – Computer se matalaq makamal maloomat Urdu mein

Is tehreer mein hum bat karen gay ke Computer kya hai, Computer ki tareef kya hai, Computer ki aqsam aur group kon se hain, Computer Hardware aur Software main kya farq hai, Computer ki Low Level aur High Level Languages aur Computer Input aur Output devices kon kon si hain. Computer ki full information in Urdu and Hindi.

Computer ki tareef (Introduction of Computer)

Computer aik aisi electronic machine hai. Jis ka kaam data ko hasal karna, is par amal karna, is ka tajzia karna aur hamari di hui hadayat ke mutabiq amal karna hai. Computer yonani zabaan ka lafz hai jis ka matlab Compute karna ya hisaab karna hota hai.

Computer aik aisi electronic machine hai jo information aur data ko Input devices se haasil karti hai aur di gayi hadaayat ke mutabiq process kar kay Output ke zariye result zahir kar deti hai.

Computer jadeed daur ka aik mufeed tareen aur huma-geer ahmiyat ka haamil aala hai. Jo hisaab ke sawal aur paicheeda shamariyati maslay, muqarara aur muhayya ki gayi hadayat ke mutabiq aasani se hal kar laita hai, phir in hisabaat ke nataij ya to zahir kar deta hai ya apne paas mehfooz kar laita hai.

Computer ki aqsam

Computer ke mandarja zail 3 aqsam hain.

  1. Analog Computer
  2. Digital Computer,
  3. Hybrid Computer

1 Analog Computer

Analog Computer pehla Computer hai. Jis ne jadeed Digital Computer ki rahein hamwar ki. Analog Computer data ko lehron ki soorat mein haasil karta hai. Analog data faasla, speed, dabao, timprichr, maya ya gas ke bahao ki sharah, current, voltage aur tabee miqdaron ki shiddat par mushtamil hota hai.

Analog Computer engineering aur scienci tahaqeeq ke liye ziyada tar istemaal kiye jatay hain. Ye Computer bohat taiz hotay hain.

2 Digital Computer

Digital Computer adaad, huroof aur special alamaat ke zariye kaam karte hain. Yani Digital Computer ko data hndson ki shakal mein muhayya kya jata hai. Jadeed Digital Computer bohat se sayzon aur mukhtalif shaklon mein dastyab hain.

Aam tor par schoolon, collegeon, universition, dafatir aur gharon mein Digital Computer istimal kiye jatay hain. Digital Computer mein bohat barri miqdaar mein data aur maloomat ko store kya ja sakta hai. Digital Computer ka tajzia bohat durust hota hai.

3 Hybrid Computer

Hybrid Computer analog Computer ki taiz raftari aur Digital Computer ki storij aur durustagi ko yakja kar ke aik behtareen khasusiyat wala Computer tayyar kya gaya hai. Jisay Hybrid Computer kaha jata hai ye kmpyo tarrrrr haspatalon mein medical tafteesh ke liye, fazai jahazoo, missilon aur fouji noiyat ke asleha jaat waghera mein istemaal hotay hain.

Analog aur Digital Computer mein farq

Difference between Analog and Digital Computer in Urdu: Analog Computer ko data lehron ki soorat mein jab kay Digital Computer ko data hاndson ki soorat muhayya kya jata hai. Analog Computer mein pemaiesh jabkay digital mein mqdarin shumaar ki jati hai.

Analog Computer bohat taiz jabkay digital nihayat durustagi se kaam karta hai. Analog Computer ki Memory mehdood jabkay Digital Computer ki Memory bohat ziyada hoti hai.

Computer ke groups – Classes of Computers in Urdu

Computers ko 4 makhsoos groupon mein taqseem kya gaya hai.

  1. Super Computer
  2. Main Frame Computer
  3. Minicomputer
  4. Micro Computer.

1 Supercomputers

Super Computer bohat paicheeda masail hal karne ke liye 1980 mein tayyar kiye gaye. Ye sab se mehngay aur taiz tareen Computer hain. Ye Computer hawai jahaaz ke design, nyoklayi reserch, scienci laboratory, aur bohat barray barray sanati idaron mein istemaal hotay hain.

Cray-II aur Control Data Cyber 205 super Computer ki misalein hain.

2 Mainframe Computer

Jaissa ke naam se zahir hai. Ye bohat barray size ke Computer hotay hain. Aur is ke poooray system ko set karne ke liye kayi barray barray kamron ki zaroorat padtee hain.

Ye Computer bohat taiz hotay hain. Aur un ki Memory bohat barri hoti hain. Ye un idaron mein istemaal hotay hain. Jahan bohat se log aik sath Computer ko istemaal karte ho. Maslan sarkari idaray, bank, hawai companian waghera.

3 Minicomputer

Minicomputer chhootey lekin bohat taaqatwar hotay hain. Un ko tijarat, taleem aur government ke adaro n mein istemaal kya jata hain digital aykopmnt karporasion ne un ko 1960 ke ashra mein muta-arif karaya. Aayi bi am karporasion, data general karporasion aur praym Computers minicomputer banati hain.

4 Microcomputer

Micro Computer nisbatan kam qeemat wala Computer hai. Jis ka istemaal bohat taizi se barh raha hain. Ye 1970 mein micro processor ban’nay ke nateeja mein tayyar huwa.

Ye qeemat mein bohat kam aur size mein bohat chhootey hotay hain. Un ko Personal Computer (PC) bhi kaha jata hai. Is liye un har jagah maslan schoolon, collegeon, universition, sarkari dafatir, bankon aur gharon mein bhi istemaal hotay hain.

Computer program ki tareef

Computer program hadaayat dainay ka wo amal hai. Jis ke tehat Computer apna kaam sar-anjaam ditahe. Is terha programming Computeron se rabita ka aik tarika hai. Ibtidayi programme machine language mein taya ray kiye gaye.

Asmin binary code ko istemaal kya gyajo ke sirf 2 adaad 0 aur 1 par mushtamil hota hai. Hadaayat dainay ka ye tarika bohat mushkil aur paicheeda tha.

Ye bhi parhen: Google kya hai?

Isliye programme bananay walon ne machine language ke bajaye assembly language mein programme tayyar karna shuru kar dyie. Doosri programming languages jo ke aasani se istemaal ki jati hain. High live l- languages hain jaisay basic, Fortran, Cobol, pascle aur C, C+, C++ waghera.

Is terha Computer languages ke 3 aqsam bayan hue :

  1. Machine language
  2. Assembly language
  3. High level language.

Low level language aur high level languages

Computer ki bunyadi language low level language hai. Asmin hadayat ko binary code ya allamti code mein diye jatay hain. Machine language aur assembly language low level languages hain. Doosri programming language high (high) level language hai.

Machine language ko samajhney mein darpaish mushkilaat ko angrezi alfaaz se allamti code bana kar hal kya gaya. Lhza ye zabaan programme likhnay mein baham aasani pohanchati hain.

Aik high level language mein likha huwa programme isi Computer par run kya jata hai. Jismen is language ka compiler ya translator mojood ho.

Compiler aik system soft -where programme hota hai jo aik high level language mein likhay hue programme ka Computer ke qabil feham low level language mein tarjuma karne ke liye istemaal kya ja taa hai.

Ziyada maqbool high level languages mein se kuch darj zail hain : Basic, Fortron, Cobol, Pascal, C, C + + aur Java waghera.

1 Low level languages (Machine aur Assembly languages)

i. Machine language

Binary code mein di gayi hadayat ke set ko machine language kehte hain. Computer ka cpu usko barah e raast samjhta hai. Ibtidayi programme machine language mein taya ray kiye gaye.

Is mein binary code ko istemaal kya jata hai jo ke sirf 2 adaad 0 aur 1 par mushtamil hota hai. Machine language mein di gayi hadaayat ke bunyadi tor par 2 hissay hotay hain pehlay hissa ko command ya operation kehte hain.

ii. Assembly language

Assembly language aik low level language hai kyunkay ye prablm ki language ke muqaabla mein Computer ki machine code se ziyada mushabihat rakhti hai.

Asmin tayyar kiye gaye programme ko machine language mein tabdeel honay ke liye aik asmblr se guzarna parta hai. Assembly language mein machine language ke tamam operation code ko ilfaaz aur alamton se jin ko ni monk kodz kehte hain badal diye jatay hain

2 High level languages (Basic, Fortran, Cobol, Pascal aur C)

i. Basic

Basic (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) ka mukhafaf hai. Ye ibtidayi darjay ke programon ke liye design ki gayi aur sab se pehlay 1964 mein muta-arif karai gayi.

Ye language angrezi zabaan se kaafi mushabihat rakhti hai. Avrih sab se ziyada istemaal honay wali aur sab se aasani se sikhi jaane wali high level language hai ab tak is ke mukhtalif version paish kiye ja chuke hain.

ii. Fortran

Fortran aayi bi am Computers ke liye 1957 mein banai gayi. Ye rayazi, science aur engineering ke masail ko hal karne ke liye tayyar ki gayi. Ye aik mustand high level language hai.

Kayi martaba is ki nazar sani ki gayi. Is ka aik nazar sani shuda nuskha Fortran 37 hai jo ke 1978 mein shaya kya gaya. Fortran unn ibtidayi languages mein se hai. Jinhon ne modular programming ka tasawwur muta-arif karaya.

iii. Cobol

Cobol (Common Business Oriented Language) aik mustand high level language hai jo ke 1959 mein taya ray ki gayi. Ye general, kmrshl aur business ke maqasid ke liye banai gayi. Cobol wo high level language hai jo kaseer tadaad ke data ko hndl karti hain.

iv. Pascal

Ye aik programming language hai. Jis ka naam francesi hisaab daan bells pascal (Blaisepascal) ke naam par rakha gaya. Ye 1970 mein structured programming ke tasawwur par tayyar ki gayi.

Aur 1971 mein is ka istemaal shuru kya gaya ye bhi aik high level language hai jo Computer science mein bohat ziyada maqbool hai.

v. C, C+,C++

C aik programming language ka poora naam hai. Jis ko 1974 mein Brian Kernighan aur Dennis Ritchie ne taya ray kya. Operating system likhnay ke liye ye programs ki aik dil pasand language hai. Si mein likhay gaye programe taiz aur qabil amal hotay hain.

Ye aik lehaaz se high level aur assembly language ka imtezaaj hai. Is liye usay middle language bhi kaha ja sakta hai. C Language ke mukhtalif version hain maslan C, C +, C + +, waghera

Computer hardware aur software mein farq

Difference between Hardware and Software: Computer system ki apni size, shakal, speed, karkardagi, ahliat, qeemat aur atlaqat ke lehaaz se bohat si kasmain hoti hain.

Aik Computer system ko hum 2 khaas hisson mein taqseem kar satke hain. Jin ko Hardware aur Software kaha jata hai.

i. Computer Hardware

Computer Hardware Computer ke kal purze ko hardware kehte hain. Yani aisay aalat jisey hum hathon ke zariye chhoo satke hain jo wazan rakhtay ho, jagah ghirte ho, aur thos haalat mein ho hard where kehlate hain. Maslan Keyboard, Mouse, CPU, Monitor, Printer, Scanner aur speaker waghera.

ii. Computer Software

Computer Software Computer ke programs jis ki hardware ko chalanay ke liye zaroorat padtee hai. Software kehlate hain. Yani hadayat ka wo set jisske zariye Computer ko bataya jata hai ke is ne kya karna hai. Maslan dose, vndoz, am s office, un page waghera.

Computer software ko mazeed system software aur Application software mein taqseem kya ja sakta hai.

a. System Software :

Aik commuting system ke operation ko control karne ke liye kuch fnkshnz design kiye jatay hain. Programme ka wo set jo ke un fnkshnz ki tameel krwata hai system software kehla taa hai.

Ye aik aam programme hai jo ke istemaal kanandah ko apna atlaqi programme likhnay mein madad karta hai aur is ke baghair Computer se rabita qaim karna mumkin nahi hai

b. Application Software :

Wo tay shuda packages ya programs jo ke system software mein likhay jatay hain ya istemaal kiye ja taay hain. Maslan Word, Processor, spreadsheet, Date Management, System Drafting, aur Communication Packages waghera atlaqi software ki chand misalein hain.

Digital Computer ke hissay (Computer ke units)

Aam tor se aik Digital Computer mandarja zail 4 ahem units par mushtamil hota hai.. Input unit, Output unit, Central Processing Unit, Memory Unit

1 Input Unit

Aisay alaat jis ke zariye se hum Computer ko data ya maloomat faraham karte hain input unit kehlata hai.

Maslan (for example) Keyboard, mouse, Joystick, light pain’ Scanner, Secondary Storage devices jaisay floppy disk aur mic waghera. Input unit user aur machine ke darmain interface ka kaam karta hai.

2 Output Unit

Ye bhi Input unit ki terha user aur machine ke darmain interface muhayya karta hai. Aur ye si pi you se binary beats ki soorat mein data haasil karta hai. Aur graphical , audio aur video ki soorat mein muntaqil kar ke user ko displaykarta hai.

Mukhtasir ye ke Computer ke sath istemaal honay walay bairooni alaat jin ki madad se information ya nataij haasil hotay hain. Output unit kehlata hai. Maslan Monitor, Printers, , Speaker, Speaker, CDs, Falappy Drives aur Hard Disk waghera.

3 Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Central Processing Unit (CPU) Computer ke Memory system unit ke androoni hissa mein nasb hota hai. Ye Computer ka dimagh hota hai.

Ye system ke andar honay walay tamam hisabi analytical aur logical function ki takmeel karta hai un ko 3 ahem hisson mein taqseem kya ja sakta hai.

4 Main Memory Unit

Main Memory Computer ki primary storage ya (auxiliary) storage hai jis tak CPU ko barah e raast rasai haasil rehti hai. Main Memory Input unit se data aur hadayat wusool karti hai.

Aur CPU ke dosray hisson se data ka tabadlah karti hai aur unko hadayat muhayya karti hai. Storage ki mukhtalif kasmain dastyab hain jin mein RAM, dram, sram, rom, prom,, mrom, eprom, eprom shaamil hain.

Computer ke input alaat

Input alaat sirf wo alaat nahi hotay jis ke zariye hum Computer ko data ya maloomat faraham karte hain balkay wo hadayat ya programme bhi wusool karte hain jis se Computer ko pata chltahe. Ke usay data ko kya karna hai.

Maslan Keyboard, Mouse, joystick, light pain, scanners, Microphone , webcam waghera.

1 Keyboard

Keyboard Computer mein sab se ziyada istemaal honay wala Input aur control aala hai. Micro Computer ke sath aam tor par istemaal honay walay Keyboard 2 qasmon ke hotay hain. PC/XT Keyboard aur AT Keyboard.

Keyboard mein aam tor par 101 / 104 / 109 keys hotay hain. Keyboard aam tor par 4 hisson mein taqseem ki ja sakta hai.

1 type writer hissa ya alphanumeric Keypad 2 Numeric Keypad 3 Function key pad 4 screen navigation aur editing keys

2 Mouse

Mouse aik Input aala hai. Mouse haath mein pakarney wala aur sirf ishara karne wala aala hai. Jis ke oopar 2 ya 3 button hotay hain jis ko click kar ke aap option ka intkhab kya jata hai.

Mouse ke penday par aik baal bearing laga hota hai jis ki madad se mouse ko idhar udher harkat di ja sakti hai. Mouse ki harkat ko mouse pointer se maloom kya ja sakta hai.

3 Track Ball

Track baal aik gaind jaisi Input device hai. Jo allag box mein ya keyboard ke andar hi munsalik hoti hai. Is gaind ko unglio ki madad se harkat di jati hai. Jis ke nateeja mein screen par kar sar mukhtalif simtao mean harkat karta hai.

4 Light Pen

Light pain pain ki shakal ki aik pointing device hai. Light pain ke agaly hissay mein aik photo sale hota hai is ka dosra hissa aik taar ke zariye Computer se munsalik hota hai.

Jab Computer istemaal kanandah pain ka agla serra screen par pherte hai to photo sale data wusool karta hai aur ye matlooba kaam sar-anjaam dainay ke liye cable ke zariye Computer ke CPU ko hadayat muhayya karta hai.

Light pain taswerain bananay ke liye istemaal hota hai. Cricket matchon mein commentator mukhtalif maqamat ki nishandahi ke liye bhi light pain ka istemaal karte hain.

5 Joystick

joystick bhi aik Input device hai ye aik amoodi chhari ki shakal ki device hai is ki madad se Computer par mukhtalif games kheli jati hain is mein button bhi lagey hotay hain jinhein mukhtalif kamon ke liye istemaal kya ja sakta hai.

Aik joy stuck aur mouse ka kaam taqreeban aik jaissa hi hota hai.

6 Scanners

Ye aik Input device hai is ki madad se taswerain graph aur mukhtalif tahreerein Computer mein daakhil ki jati hain. Skinr ki madad se nihayat k waqt mein bohat qeemti data aasani se Computer mein daakhil kya jata hai.

7 Digital Camera

Aam tor par tasweer khenchnay ke liye camera istima l- karte hain lekin agar hum direct tasweer khech kar Computer ko bhejna chahain to is ke liye digital camera istemaal hotay hain.

Digital camera ki madad se tasweer si d’ hard disk ya Computer ki reem mein chali jati hai. Is ko mehfooz kar ke baad mein zaroorat ke mutabiq load bhi kya jasktahe.

8 Disk Drive (Maqnateesi Type)

Hard disk, maqnateesi tape : ye devices mustaqil tor par data mehfooz karne ke liye istemaal kiye jatay hain aur kisi bhi waqt inhen istemaal kya ja sakta hai. Jab hum un devices ke zariye data haasil karte hain to inhen input devices kaha jata hai. Jab ke ye output bhi hain.

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